The Church during the Napoleonic era
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In 1801, the Church regained most of its freedom, even if not all of its former might, thanks to the Concordat signed by the then consul Napoleon Bonaparte and Pope Pius VII. The people gained back their liberty of religious expression (for the Catholics as well as for the Protestant and Jewish minorities) but Rome's power to influence French political affairs was still severely curtailed. Bishops were to be appointed by the State and Rome was forced to definitely abandon any claims to its confiscated land.
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